Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids
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New model 216 decreptiometer

Exploration of the Mt. Boppy Au deposit, NSW

Forensic tests on soil samples


Do IOCG deposits form from CO2 fluids?

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids (UPDATED)

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2-only fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous - CO2 fluids: NOT from CO2-only fluids

Discussions why H2 analysis by mass spectrometry is wrong


Gold at Okote, Ethiopia

Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI Iceland
     July 2-6

AOGS Singapore
    30 Jul - 4 Aug 2023

SGA Zurich Aug 2023

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

Decrepitation data from the Londonderry pegmatite, WA

A suite of samples was collected from this area in 1994.


londonderry pegmatite location mapcoolgardie location map


Most quartz samples from this pegmatite deposit lack low temperature decrepitation caused by CO2 rich fluid inclusions. This contrasts with some other pegmatites such as Tanco, Canada where CO2 rich fluids were common. There are significant differences in decrepitation within and between the 2 pits sampled, indicating that the fluids were quite variable on a local small scale. In particular, only one of the 2 areas sampled contained CO2 rich fluid inclusions in the quartz samples.

Most feldspar samples do decrepitate but typically at much lower intensity than quartz samples, and a few feldspar samples do not decrepitate. Fluid inclusions are preserved in feldspar samples, and their differing decrepitation patterns indicate deposit scale variations in deposition conditions. But it is difficult to interpret the meaning of these variations.

Lepidolite does show weak decrepitation, but this may not be due to fluid inclusions which are probably not preserved in the platy and weak crystal structure of this mineral.


Quartz samples 1550A and 1550L show low temperature decrepitation near 250 C indicating the presence of CO2 rich fluid inclusions. Samples 1550A (quartz, red) and 1550B (feldspar, green) are adjacent and should show the same fluid inclusion characteristics, but the feldspar has no decrepitation and seems to contain no (or only very small) fluid inclusions. But other feldspar samples, notably 1550E (blue) do decrepitate and contain abundant fluid inclusions.

sample 1550 qtz and feldspar

Many feldspar samples have only low levels of decrepitation, and the decrepitation graphs show irregular patterns.
sample 1550 feldspar

sample 1550 feldspar

Samples of lepidolite show only very weak decrepitation. The platy crystal structure of lepidolite is unlikely to preserve fluid inclusions and this decrepitation  is probably not caused by fluid inclusions.
sample 1550 lepidolite

Quartz samples show significant variation in decrepitation patterns across the deposit, probably indicating var2iations in the formation temperature on a local scale. But none of these samples contains CO2 rich fluid inclusions.
sample 1550 quartz

Quartz samples from 2 separate pits some distance apart are similar, but only the 2 samples from pit A contain CO2 rich fluids, which seem to be of restricted spatial occurrence.
sample 1550 quartz - pit compare

Summary (back to top)

Sample descriptions

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