Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids
Newest Topics:

New model 216 decreptiometer

Exploration of the Mt. Boppy Au deposit, NSW

Forensic tests on soil samples


Do IOCG deposits form from CO2 fluids?

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids (UPDATED)

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2-only fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous - CO2 fluids: NOT from CO2-only fluids

Discussions why H2 analysis by mass spectrometry is wrong


Gold at Okote, Ethiopia

Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI Iceland
     July 2-6

AOGS Singapore
    30 Jul - 4 Aug 2023

SGA Zurich Aug 2023

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

Hydrogen analyses of aqueous fluids by mass spectrometry are wrong

Hydrogen  (H2) is a by-product of the ionization of water in the mass spectrometer ionizer.

Analyses of hydrogen in fluid inclusion fluids should not be done by mass spectrometry. Laser raman analysis should be used instead.

Mass spectrometry is often used to analyse the chemical composition of fluids within fluid inclusions. Many studies have observed hydrogen based on these analyses. However the reported hydrogen contents are often surprisingly high. Some authors have realized that there is a problem and have proposed that the hydrogen has come from the chemical reduction of water during the analyses, although this is thermodynamically improbable. However there is an alternative explanation.  The problem is due to an incomplete understanding of the ionization process in the ionizer of the mass spectrometer and that H2 (mass 2) is a spurious byproduct of the ionization of water. The discussions here explain the issues relating to hydrogen analyses in fluid inclusions using mass spectrometry.

A discussion of analyses reported in the literature and my own analyses which lead to recognition of the ionization problem.
                Hydrogen analyses reported from the Idaho cobalt belt by Gary P Landis and Albert H Hofstra, 2012.
                Hydrogen analyses reported from the Maw zone, Athabasca, Canada by Rabiei et. al. 2017.

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