Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids
Newest Topics:

New model 216 decreptiometer

Exploration of the Mt. Boppy Au deposit, NSW

Forensic tests on soil samples


Do IOCG deposits form from CO2 fluids?

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids (UPDATED)

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2-only fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous - CO2 fluids: NOT from CO2-only fluids

Discussions why H2 analysis by mass spectrometry is wrong


Gold at Okote, Ethiopia

Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI Iceland
     July 2-6

AOGS Singapore
    30 Jul - 4 Aug 2023

SGA Zurich Aug 2023

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

Gold-quartz deposits do NOT form from CO2-only fluids:  

Heterogeneous fluid inclusion trapping is everywhere

By: Kingsley Burlinson   December 2017

In 1997 Schmidt Mumm et. al. asserted that gold might be transported in and deposited from pure CO2 (non-aqueous) fluids. Despite gold being only a trace component of the mineral deposit, which was a quartz vein, there was no attempt to explain the essential transport and deposition of quartz. The problem was a failure to understand the immiscibility of CO2-water fluids and failure to understand the resulting fluid inclusion assemblages. This series of discussions explains in detail the characteristics of CO2-water fluids, the way they unmix into a binary fluid mixture and how fluid inclusions form within these fluids. With this proper understanding of the CO2-water system it is clear that water is the dominant constituent and both the quartz and gold are transported in the aqueous fluid while the unmixed  CO2 fluid plays little or no part in the mineralising event.

An example of fluid cooling across the immiscibility solvus showing why such heterogeneous fluids are misidentified and how they form CO2-only inclusions from aqueous parent fluids. K. Burlinson, April 2018.

A complete overview of the heterogeneous CO2-water system.
An explanation of the presence of CO2 fluid inclusions in heterogeneous dominantly aqueous fluid systems. The gold and silica are not transported in the CO2 fluid because it is a minor component of the dominantly aqueous, heterogeneous fluid system.  By: K. Burlinson, December 2017

Research by Liu shows a negative correlation between gold solubility and CO2 content in fluids. This confirms other discussions below which point out that mis-interpretation of heterogeneous fluids is the real explanation of anhydrous CO2 fluid inclusions found in some gold deposits. By: K. Burlinson, November 2016

Boiling epithermal fluid systems and immiscible CO2 - aqueous fluid systems are both heterogeneous fluids, but they are very different and must be interpreted differently.        By: Kingsley Burlinson, November 2014

Inclusion morphology can indicate that gas filled inclusions must have formed as bubbles within a liquid rather than being trapped from a purely gas host phase fluid.         By: Kingsley Burlinson, June 2014

A discussion disputing published work which wrongly claims to prove that gold is transported in pure CO2 fluids.                 By: Kingsley Burlinson, September 2013

A discussion disputing the transport of gold in pure CO2 fluids.              By:  Kingsley Burlinson,   September 2011