Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids
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New model 216 decreptiometer

Exploration of the Mt. Boppy Au deposit, NSW

Forensic tests on soil samples


Do IOCG deposits form from CO2 fluids?

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids (UPDATED)

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2-only fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous - CO2 fluids: NOT from CO2-only fluids

Discussions why H2 analysis by mass spectrometry is wrong


Gold at Okote, Ethiopia

Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI Iceland
     July 2-6

AOGS Singapore
    30 Jul - 4 Aug 2023

SGA Zurich Aug 2023

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

My most pleasant bicycle tour segments

Kingsley Burlinson  2016

There is plenty of information on the web about bicycle tour destinations. But much less about the greatest cycling segments, omitting the mundane stretches of cycling between these most memorable or most scenic segments. And only rarely are maps of these great cycling segments provided.

So here is my selection of the absolute best cycling segments from my travels. I am a "lightweight" tourer and i do not carry a tent etc., relying on local accommodation during my travels so my touring is limited to routes where significant towns are up to 200 Km apart. These routes are each one or more day cycling segments of 120 Km. or more. They are all paved road routes.

I include a small overview map, and also a link to a "kmz" file of the route which you can view in google earth  and zoom in for detail. Since 2013 I have used a GPS tracker to save my routes.

Although these routes are in no particular order, I must admit that the most spectacular routes in my opinion are:
  • The Icefields parkway in the Rocky Mountains of western Canada
  • The Taroko gorge in Taiwan
  • The bridges route across the inland sea of Japan from Onomichi to Matsuyama. (Shimanami Kaido)
Warning:  The best rides and scenic routes almost always involve mountains. Most of these routes require muscles and endurance!


Across the island through Taroko gorge and over Wuling summit. A truly spectacular but very strenuous ride.

taiwan taroko gorge

Looking down on the cloud tops concealing lower Taroko gorge

looking east down taroko gorge
  • Stunning scenery
  • Very serious climb of about 3000m in 60 Km. Do not underestimate this!
  • More scenic climbing westwards, but also slightly more demanding for the last 5 Km.
  • Very little traffic on the east side - no buses or trucks allowed.
  • Ridden in 2011 (twice and both directions!) ( Time: 2 days)
  • Visit Sun-moon lake also - well established tourist resort area.

Google earth route map of Taroko gorge , Wuling summit and Sun-Moon lake.


Across the inland sea bridges from Onomichi to Shikoku island.

japan bridges map, onomichi

The only triple-span suspension bridge in the world. And it has a bike pathway!
southern bridge across inland sea

  • A bicycle path route separated from traffic across some 7 amazing bridges for about 70 Km.
  • Surely the world's most impressive (and expensive) bicycle pathway!
  • Great scenery and engineering
  • Ridden in 2014   (Time: 3 days)
  • Continue on in southern Sikoku island - great mountain cycling and little traffic.
  • You can avoid the mountains if you must.

You can ride to the north of the island and get a ferry back to Honshu and nearby Osaka airport, but the traffic is heavy and the scenery uninteresting as you near Tokushima (ferry location).

Google earth route map from Onomichi to Shikoku island


The Icefields parkway from Banff to Jasper through the National Park

banff to Jasper route map

  • Great scenic route through national park
  • Plenty of climbing but mostly low gradient
  • Cyclists do need to purchase a park entry permit (tollgates near Banff, and north of Lake Louise)
  • From Banff to Lake Louise the old highway (across the river from the new freeway) is a superb low-traffic bike route
  • Canmore is a better (less touristic) stopover than (expensive) Banff
  • Stop halfway at Saskatchewan river crossing - hotel and camping.
  • Calgary traffic can be tough. 
  • Watch the weather - it changes quickly and there is little en-route shelter
  • Ridden in 2002 (Time: 3 days)

Google earth route map from Canmore to Jasper


Aurillac to St. Etienne, in the massif central region and across Puy Mary.

aurillac to st etienne map

  • Nice long climb up over Puy Mary
  • Le Puy-en-Velay is an interesting town
  • Great cycling along the Loire valley
  • Ridden in 2007 (Time: 2 days)

Low traffic roads, 2-3 days cycling, not many services between Saint Flour and Le Puy-en-Velay.
Google earth route map Aurillac to St. Etienne, Puy Mary and Loire valley.

Route des Cretes, Vosges mountains NE France. (Pilgrim's route)

route des cretes, vosges mts, France

Lake Gerardmer
lake gerardmer

  • Great route across the Vosges mountains with a long and very scenic ridge-top ride along the pilgrim's route.
  • Considerable climbing is necessary.
  • Additional rides to famous mountain tops nearby are nice, but only for masochists!
  • Easy to avoid the main traffic routes on good secondary roads with very little traffic
  • Ridden in 2015  (Time: 2 days)
  • Guebwiller is a cute small town suitable as a base for more local rides.
  • Gerardmer is a major tourist hub, best avoided!

Google earth route map from Deycimont (near Bruyeres) to Guebwiller (Deycimont has a nice B&B to stay at)


Picos de Europa national park and Lagos de Covadonga, Austurias, Northern Spain.

picos de europa map
  • Serious climbs south of Cangas de Onis
  • Plenty of accommodation in Cangas de Onis to use as a base
  • Nice valley ride to the east
  • Ridden in 2007  (Time: 4 days)

Avoid the main roads - very heavy traffic on them
Google earth route map of the Picos de Europa region.


North-western china between Chongqing and Xian in the Qinling mountains. But the military dislikes lone westerners in these touristic mountains!

These are 2 segments of my travels and I rode north from Dazhou and later south from Baoji. I was detained by the militia and police in Xixiang and  involuntarily relocated to Xian by bus.

Xian route maps, china

Mountain valley near Wanyuan
valley near wanyuan

  • Long and impressive valley route from Dazhou to Wanyuan
  • Great scenic mountains and climbs on good roads from Wanyuan to Xixiang with little traffic
  • Long climb with great scenery from Baoji to Fengxian, good roads, light traffic
  • Pleasant scenic route with heavy truck traffic (but considerate of cyclists) nearing Hanzhong
  • Ridden in 2014 (Time: 2 days each segment)
  • Xian is the location of the famous Terracotta warriors tourist attraction
Google earth route map for both segments in the Xian area


Northern Arizona canyon-lands, into Colorado and mountains

chinle canyon to Montrose map

The high Coalbank pass between Durango and Silverton

durango to Silverton pass

  • Chinle canyon and north are surprisingly impressive "badlands" within Indian lands.
  • Long distance  from Chinle to Cortez with only a few native stores for service points.
  • Not much climbing except nearing Cortez
  • Durango is pleasant and cycling friendly
  • Cortez to Durango and particularly onwards to Ouray have serious mountain passes.
  • Ridden in 2015  (Time: 3 days)

Google earth rote map from Chinle Az. to Montrose Co.


The Victorian coastline, the "Great Ocean Road route" from Port Campbell to Apollo Bay and Queenscliff

Great ocean road route, Victoria

The Great Ocean road near Apollo Bay
Apollo bay to lorne coastal raoad

  • Scenic coastline road but traffic can be heavy, particularly on weekends or holidays
  • Significant climbs through the Otway ranges
  • Wind can be an issue and can be either from the SE or W - there is no protection! 
  • The ferry across the entrance to Port Phillip Bay is bicycle friendly and goes to Melbourne's SE outer suburbs.
  • Ridden in 2012 (Time: 2+ days)

Google earth route map from Port Campbell to Queenscliff ferry terminal

South east Queensland - Kingaroy to the orange orchards at Gayndah

Kingaroy to Gayndah route map

  • No mountains or scenery - just a serene, long, open-country, low traffic route, typical Australian back country
  • Almost no services north of Wondai.
  • Gayndah is an irrigation region growing citrus fruit
  • Paradise dam is a recreation and camping area
  • A nice alternative route to the busy main arterial Bruce highway further east
  • Ridden in 2012 (and several other times)  (Time: 1.5 days)
Google earth route map from Kingaroy to Gayndah and Paradise dam


A good cycling destination, but be prepared for rain, particularly on the west coast.

  • Logging trucks can be a problem in some areas, mainly along the north coast.
  • A complete circuit of Tasmania can be ridden in less than 10 days.
  • Ridden in 2004.   No route information available.


Avoid NSW - it has an anti-cyclist administration and police force which facilitates if not actually encourages aggressive motorist behaviour against cyclists.


Southern coastline west of Antalya and also Lake Egirdir

Fethiye and Egirdir route maps

Looking westwards across lake Egirdir to the town of Egirdir

lake egirdir

  • Fethiye to Kas and Finike has great coastline scenery
  • But there are some climbs
  • Beware: the road is narrow and some drivers are very bad
  • Finike is a tiny coastal town but there is one hotel
  • Finike to Kumluca is uninspiring, but Kumluca is much larger (and also uninspiring)
  • Ridden in 2013 (Time: 2 days)
  • ----------------
  • Dinar to Egirdir is through nice irrigated orchard farms nearing the lake
  • Riding along the lakeside road is truly sublime
  • Egirdir lakeshore is insect infested
  • Egirdir is a low-key resort and old fortification
  • Ridden in 2013 (Time: 1 day)

Avoid riding in Istanbul - it is cycling hell! Use the ferry to Yalova (from Yenikapi terminal)

Google earth route map of both sections


Almost the entire country is great for cycling.
I could not pick just a single best segment so this selection is 700+ Km from west to east. There are many scenic mountain climbs, but also many pleasant river valley sections.

austria route map

  • Arlberg Pass is the hardest climb. You cannot cycle the long freeway tunnel to avoid this climb.
  • Traffic is mostly courteous, roads are good
  • There are many bike paths but they can be hard to navigate. I mostly used the roads.
  • Not always easy to avoid road tunnels in the west
  • Ridden in 2010 (Time: 5 days)

Google earth route map across Austria


A deliberately hilly scenic route east from Zvolen

Zvolen to Turna route

The walking trail in the gorge near Turna nad Bodvou

slovak gorge

  • Route avoids most main highways
  • Many hills and valleys to cross from Zvolen to Hnusta (including up to a ski resort)
  • Hnusta is a relict of communist eastern europe
  • Nice gorge foot trail near Turna. Too rough to cycle
  • Ridden in 2010 (Time: 2 days)

Google earth route map Zvolen to Turna nad Bodvou


A deliberately mountainous and scenic route from Thun to Zurich with 2 high passes each day!

thun to zurich route

  • Backroads crossing high mountain passes every day
  • Sustenpass is a great ride
  • Pragelpass west of Glarus is nice with very low traffic
  • Cyclists are well respected by motorists in Switzerland
  • Ridden in 2007 (Time: 5 days)

Google earth route map from Thun to Zurich

New Zealand

North Island:  The Coromandel peninsula

Auckland to Tauranga route map

  • Eastern exit from suburban south Auckland avoids the main highway and traffic and is scenic with modest hills
  • nice coastline scenery
  • Hilly nearing Coromandel at northern tip of the peninsula and beyond
  • Low traffic as far as Waihi
  • Nasty traffic on a narrow highway from Waihi to Tauranga, but unavoidable en-route to Rotarua.
  • Ridden in 2013    (3 days)

Google earth route map from Auckland to Tauranga

South Island:  Kingston to Queenstown and then over Crown Range pass to Wanaka.

kingston to Wanaka via queenstown

  • Very scenic lake-shore route, no real climbs
  • Long climb over Crown range pass (Avoid this by going via Cromwell)
  • Wanaka is a nice lakeside resort town
  • Ridden in 2009 (2 days)
Google earth route map Kingston to Queenstown and over Crown range pass to Wanaka

There are surely many more great cycling routes which I have not yet discovered!

 I hope these route experiences inspire you you find your own cycling ecstasy.