Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2 fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous heterogeneous fluids: NOT from CO2 fluids

Inclusion shapes can prove heterogeneous FI trapping

Disproportional FI trapping from heterogeneous fluids explains gas-dominant systems

A discussion of H2 analysis by mass spectrometry

A mechanism to form H2 in the MS ioniser during analyses


Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

New model 205 decreptiometer

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI, June 24-26, Budapest, Hungary

AOGS, Singapore, 28 Jul-2 Aug 2019

SGA, Glasgow Scotland, Aug. 27-30 2019

SEG, Santiago Chile, Oct 7-10 2019

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar


An example of fluid cooling across the immiscibility solvus showing why such heterogeneous fluids are misidentified and how they form CO2-only inclusions from aqueous parent fluids. K. Burlinson, April 2018.

An explanation of the presence of CO2 fluid inclusions in heterogeneous dominantly aqueous fluid systems. The gold and silica are not transported in the CO2 fluid because it is a minor component of the dominantly aqueous system.

Research by Liu shows a negative correlation between gold solubility and CO2 content in fluids. This confirms other discussions below which point out that mis-interpretation of heterogeneous fluids is the real explanation of anhydrous CO2 fluid inclusions found in some gold deposits.
Boiling epithermal fluid systems and immiscible CO2 - aqueous fluid systems are both heterogeneous fluids, but they are very different and must be interpreted differently.
By: Kingsley Burlinson, November 2014
Inclusion morphology can indicate that gas filled inclusions must have formed as bubbles within a liquid rather than being trapped from a purely gas host phase fluid.
By: Kingsley Burlinson, June 2014

A discussion disputing published work which wrongly claims to prove that gold is transported in pure CO2 fluids. By: Kingsley Burlinson, September 2013

A discussion disputing the transport of gold in pure CO2 fluids   By:  Kingsley Burlinson,   September 2011

                By:  Kingsley Burlinson,   July 2012
                By:  Kingsley Burlinson,  April 2013

A discussion of the serious errors in analysis of hydrogen within fluid inclusions by mass spectrometry.
By: Kingsley Burlinson, September 2013

                Hydrogen analyses reported from the Maw zone, Athabasca, Canada by Rabiei et. al. 2017.

Studies of IOCG deposits almost invariably observe fluid inclusions within the quartz gangue minerals to determine the nature of the ore fluids. But many studies infer the presence of multiple fluid events and Cu stable isotope studies have shown that the ore and gangue minerals of epithermal deposits do not form from the same fluid. The assertion of formation of these Fe-oxide deposits from CO2 rich fluids is tenuous at best.
By: Kingsley Burlinson,  June 2016
Fluid inclusion information is particularly useful in exploration for porphyry copper deposits, but was completely ignored during exploration at the Cadia mine, NSW, Australia.
By:   Kingsley Burlinson,   May 2012

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