Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids
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New model 216 decreptiometer

Exploration of the Mt. Boppy Au deposit, NSW

Forensic tests on soil samples


Do IOCG deposits form from CO2 fluids?

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids (UPDATED)

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2-only fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous - CO2 fluids: NOT from CO2-only fluids

Discussions why H2 analysis by mass spectrometry is wrong


Gold at Okote, Ethiopia

Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI Iceland
     July 2-6

AOGS Singapore
    30 Jul - 4 Aug 2023

SGA Zurich Aug 2023

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

Pegmatites from the Grenville province, Ontario, Canada

A suite of samples was collected from 3 pegmatite localities in the Grenville province.
Details of the sample locations are in:
U-, Mo-, and REE-bearing pegmatites and skarns and veins in the central metasedimentary belt, Grenville province, Ontario.
BY:   David R. Lentz,    Field trip A9 guidebook, May 1991. (Geological Assoc. Canada)

Location map

grenville sample locations

Samples were collected from the Goshen Uraniferous granite pegmatite,  the Spain Mo-U skarn deposit and the MacDonald zoned granitic pegmatite.


At 2 of the 3 locations sampled in this region, CO2 rich fluid inclusions are common in the pegmatite. There are also significant variations in the decrepitation patters indicating formation from a range of different fluids across the region and also within individual mines.
Feldspar samples show much less or even no decrepitation and do not correlate with nearby quartz samples.


Samples from the Goshen U area showed normal decrepitation for quartz with no low temperature decrepitation and hence no CO2 rich fluids present.
sample 1401, Goshen

At the Spain mine the intense low temperature decrepitation indicates the presence of CO2 rich fluids in the quartz.
But feldspar lacked any decrepitation and it is not clear why the 2 co-existing minerals contain such different fluid inclusion populations.

sample 1403 Spain mine

The samples from the MacDonald pegmatite often contain CO2 rich fluids and show a low temperature decrepitation response. Samples 1404A and 1404B contain trace amounts of CO2 rich fluids.
sample 1404, MacDonald pegmatite

Feldspar samples from MacDonald show some decrepitation, but the temperatures do not correlate with quartz decrepitation temperatures at this mine.
sample 1405, feldspars, MacDonald mine

Sample 1406B (green) from the MacDonald mine shows particularly intense low temperature decrepitation due to abundant CO2 rich fluid inclusions. Other peaks occur at 350 C and 420 C as well as the more commonly seen peak at 470 C and indicate fluid variability during formation.
sample 1406 MacDonald mine

Summary (back to top)

Sample descriptions

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