Applied mineral exploration methods, hydrothermal fluids, baro-acoustic decrepitation, CO2 rich fluids

How CO2 inclusions form from aqueous fluids

Understanding heterogeneous fluids : why gold is not transported in CO2 fluids

Gold-quartz deposits form from aqueous heterogeneous fluids: NOT from CO2 fluids

Inclusion shapes can prove heterogeneous FI trapping

Disproportional FI trapping from heterogeneous fluids explains gas-dominant systems

A discussion of H2 analysis by mass spectrometry

A mechanism to form H2 in the MS ioniser during analyses


Kalgoorlie Au data

Sangan skarn Fe deposits, Iran

New model 205 decreptiometer

Studies of 6 Pegmatite deposits

A study of the Gejiu tin mine, China

Exploration using palaeo-hydrothermal fluids

Using opaque minerals to understand ore fluids

Understanding baro-acoustic decrepitation.

An introduction to fluid inclusions and mineral exploration applications.

 Interesting Conferences:


ECROFI, June 24-26, Budapest, Hungary

AOGS, Singapore, 28 Jul-2 Aug 2019

SGA, Glasgow Scotland, Aug. 27-30 2019

SEG, Santiago Chile, Oct 7-10 2019

Comprehensive Geology Conference Calendar

Decrepitation studies of pegmatites

Pegmatites are often important sources of rare elements or rare-earth elements and form an important class of mineral deposits. However it has been difficult to understand how these enigmatic rocks form and why they often contain gigantic (metres across) perfect single crystals of many minerals. Many models have been proposed to explain their formation.

A good overview of pegmatite crystallization processes and models by David London and George B Morgan is here.
        (published in Elements magazine, August 2012 V8 #4)

Many, but not all, pegmatites formed from fluids with substantial contents of CO2.  In this comparison plot, samples from Bynoe and Tanco have particularly intense low temperature CO2 decrepitation, while samples from Greenbushes and the massif central in France have no CO2 response.
pegmatite quartz decrepitation

Pegmatites also contain large feldspar crystals which should preserve fluid inclusions. However, the feldspars often show no decrepitation at all, and when they do show decrepitation it does not usually correlate with co-existing quartz analyses. Without further study, feldspars are a problematical host mineral for fluid inclusion and decrepitation analyses.

decrepitation of fedspars in pegmatites

Other less common minerals in the pegmatites can also show decrepitation. However, without a large suite of samples of the same mineral it is not possible to interpret the decrepitation plots. In the following plot, note that the pollucite result has been divided by 5 to fit this scale.

decrepitation of other pegmatite minerals

Samples of pegmatites have been collected from 6 different provinces and have been analysed by acoustic decrepitation to try and understand the fluid environment in which these deposits formed. Results from these provinces are compiled and discussed in the following links.

Massif Central, France

Grenville province, Ontario, Canada

Tanco, Manitoba, Canada

Bynoe Harbour, NT, Australia

Greenbushes, WA, Australia

Londonderry, WA, Australia